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The possible mechanisms of cellular uptake for the three types of gold nanoparticles were examined, and it was found that different shapes tended to use the various endocytosis pathways in different proportions.Our study, which has demonstrated that shape can modulate the uptake of nanoparticles into RAW264.7 cells and that triangles were the shape with the most efficient cellular uptake, provides useful guidance toward the design of nanomaterials for drug delivery..Treatment of cells with P-GNPs for 24 h revealed that these nanoparticles were nontoxic over the concentration range of 2.5 μg/m L to 40 μg/m L.Differences in cytotoxicity among these three were not significant (Fig. We chose 20 μg/m L as a safe concentration for studying cellular uptake.The intracellular concentrations of gold after incubation for 4 h with the P-GNPs were below the detection limit of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES).At 8 h and 24 h, shape and time-dependent cellular uptake was observed (Fig. After incubation for 24 h, gold concentrations in the cells incubated with P-GNSs, P-GNRs, and P-GNTs were 0.154 ± 0.010 pg/cell, 0.814 ± 0.001 pg/cell, and 1.333 ± 0.038 pg/cell, respectively.
5B–D) and were localized in vacuoles (i.e., endosomes and/or lysosomes) in the perinuclear region of the cells. Cellular uptake of P-GNPs(A) and TEM images of RAW 264.7 after 24 h of incubation with P-GNSs(B), P-GNRs(C), P-GNTs(D). Statistical significance is represented by *p We used endocytic inhibitors to evaluate the involvement of different endocytic pathways in the uptake of these three types of gold nanoparticles.When the data were converted to percentage uptake from the total added gold the results were 0.38%, 2.04%, and 3.33%.The cellular uptake of P-GNTs was the significantly greatest, followed by P-GNRs and P-GNSs.Gold nanomaterials have attracted considerable interest as vehicles for intracellular drug delivery.In our study, we synthesized three different shapes of methylpolyethylene glycol coated-anisotropic gold nanoparticles: stars, rods, and triangles.
A greater understanding of the shape effect on GNP-cell interactions would aid the development of effective tools for drug delivery.